Traccar Architecture

Netty Pipeline

Traccar system is based on the Netty framework.

For each network channel or connection Traccar creates a pipeline of event handlers. Incoming messages from GPS devices are received as binary buffers and are separated into frames, decoded into an internal position model and eventually stored in the database. Outgoing messages (commands) are going in the opposite direction and are starting as an internal command model and eventually get converted into binary buffers that are sent to devices. Each protocol has its own pipeline, but most of the supported protocol include following main handlers in their pipelines:

Pipeline for each protocol is configured in the corresponding protocol class, which also defines additional protocol-specific configuration, including a list of supported commands.

Events and Notifications

Events can be reported directly by a GPS device, or events can be generated on the server side based on specific data and conditions. All events, except for the connection status events, are generated in network pipeline handlers based on the data in the position model.

Generated events are delivered to appropriate users via following channels:

Delivery logic for each channel is implemented in a corresponding Notificator class. Notificators can be enabled and disabled in the configuration file.


Server can be configured to work with almost any SQL database engine, including popular options like MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle.

Initial database schema creation and subsequent database schema upgrade migrations are done using Liquibase library. It allows to define schema in universal format in changelog XML files and generate database-specific SQL queries at runtime.

For fast access to the data, most of the current information for connected devices is cached internally in memory. To avoid outdated cache issues, it is recommended to make any changes using the API instead of direct database queries.

Web Server

Traccar system includes an embedded Jetty web server. Jetty is a stable and mature implementation of Java HTTP server and Servlet container. It is used in many popular products and frameworks.

In Traccar system Jetty is used to serve the following main components:

Following sections describe each component in more details.


Interface consists of the two main parts:

REST API is implemented using standard Java EE API for RESTful web services. Each model in the system has its own dedicated endpoint. Most URL endpoints accept following methods:

In addition to the REST API, which only allows client driven request-based usage, Traccar provides WebSocket endpoint to get instant updates from the server. It is used for device status updates, location updates and event notifications.

Both REST API and WebSocket connection use same authentication and authorisation mechanisms. For more information about API and security see the API documentation.

Web Application

Traccar system includes a web application for managing users, devices and other information. The web app relies on the API described above.

Application is based on the React framework with Materia UI for the user interface. Data flow is managed by the Redux. Navigation is done using React Router framework.

The web app is served as a set of static files. There are some external dependencies for the map display.